- Caesar makes preparations for a war in Parthia.
- Assassination of Caesar.
- Mark Antony enters negotiations with assassins in Rome. Riots in Rome suppressed by Antony.
- Octavius adopted by will (not ratified until 43).
- Assassins leave Rome, and later leave Italy
- Octavian returns to Italy to take up his legacy.
- Relations between Antony and the faction of the assassins worsens. Antony takes control of the Dalmatian legions and transfer the army to Italy (early October).
- Antony arranges for the provinces to be redistributed and takes Cisalpine Gaul as a province.
- Cicero speaks against Antony (from September)
- Antony raises troops and collect Macedonian legions from Brundisium.
- Octavian raises veteran forces and marches on Rome. Coup fails.
- Antony marches on Decimus Brutus.
- Two legions defect to Octavian.
- Hirtius and Pansa appointed consuls.
- Cicero intensifies attacks on Antony
- Antony declared a public enemy.
- Assassins raise troops and campaign in the East.
- Armies of Hirtius, Pansa, and Octavian advance on Mutina where D. Brutus is besieged. Antony is defeated (April).
- Lepidus joins Antony (May)
- Octavian marches on Rome. Octavian and Antony are reconciled by Lepidus. Resistance to Octavian and Antony crumbles in Italy, Gaul, Spain, and Africa.
- Octavian Consul.
- Creation of the triumvirate (November 27th)
- Death of Cicero (December)
- Philippi and the defeat of the assassins (October).
- Death of Brutus and Cassius41
- Antony meets Cleopatra at Tarsus.
- Antony campaigns in the East and restores Roman control over the Levant
- Octavian begins settlement of troops in colonies in Italy; disruptions in Italy and Rome.
- Quarrels of Octavian, L. Antonius and Fulvia degenerate into armed conflict
- Perusine War
- Fall of Perusia
- Antony invades Italy. War in the area of Brundisium. Soldiers refuse to fight and bring about peace.
- Death of of Fulvia
- Marriage of Antony and Octavia.
- Reconciliation with Pompeius.
- Antony and Octavian rule in Rome.
- Treaty of Misenum with Pompeius.
- Antony returns to the East to resume war with Parthia.
- Julia, daughter of Octavian, born.
- War resumes with Pompeius.
- Octavian defeated in battle and his fleet destroyed.
- Pompeius starts to behave as if Neptune.
- Antony campaigns in the East.
- Pompeius defeated by Agrippa at Mylae. Agrippa, Lepidus and Octavian land on Sicily and defeat Pompeius, who flees to the East.
- Octavian quarrels with Lepidus whose army defects. Mutiny of Octavian’s troops suppressed.
- Antony defeated in Parthia.
- Octavian celebrates victory in Rome; more honours granted to Octavian and Antony.
- Death of Sextus Pompeius.
- Octavian campaigns in Illyria and Pannonia.
- Antony campaigns in Armenia.
- Statues voted for Livia and Octavia.
- Octavian consul.
- Relations between Antony and Octavian worsen.
- Agrippa aedile in Rome. Programme of civic improvements.
- The consuls speak against Antony in the Senate. Octavian responds. The consuls flee to Antony.
- Defections from Antony bring news that Antony’s will was deposited with Vestals in Rome.
- After the will is read, Antony is declared a public enemy.
- War in the Adriatic.
- War of Actium (September)
- Defections from Antony and Cleopatra.