- 753 Traditional date for the foundation of Rome.
- 509 Foundation of the Republic
- c. 500 – c. 287 Conflict between plebeians and patricians (struggle of the orders).
- 280-70 Pyrrhic War: Rome completes conquest of peninsular Italy.
- 264-41 First Punic War
- 218-201 Second Punic (Hannibalic) War
- 149-46 Third Punic War
- 133 Tribunate of Tiberius Gracchus.
- 124 First tribunate of Gaius Gracchus.
- 123 Second tribunate of Gaius Gracchus.
- 112–106 War with Jugurtha.
- 107 First consulship of Gaius Marius.
- 106 Birth of Cicero.
- 105 Roman defeat at Arausio.
- 104 Second consulship of Gaius Marius.
- 103 Third consulship of Gaius Marius.
- 102 Fourth consulship of Gaius Marius.
Defeat of the German tribes at Aix-en-Provence.
- 101 Fifth consulship of Gaius Marius.
Defeat of German tribes at Vercellae.
- 100 Sixth consulship of Gaius Marius.
Birth of Julius Caesar.
Repression of the tribune Saturninus.
- 90–89 Social War.
- 88 Consulship of Cornelius Sulla.
Sulla’s march on Rome.
- 87 Marius’ march on Rome.
- 86 Seventh consulship of Gaius Marius.
Death of Marius.
- 84 Sulla’s return to Italy. Outbreak of civil war.
- 82 Battle of the Colline Gate. Defeat of Marian forces in Italy.
- 80 Sulla steps down from office.
- 78 “Revolt” of Marcus Lepidus.
Pompey sent to Spain to fight Sertorius.
- 73–71 Revolt of Spartacus.
- 70 Consulship of Pompey and Crassus.
- 67 Pirate war fought by Pompey.
- 66–62 Pompey in the East.
- 63 Consulship of Cicero.
Conspiracy of Catilina.
Birth of Gaius Octavius (later to become Augustus) (September 23).
- 60 Consulship of Julius Caesar. Formation of the alliance between Pompey, Crassus, and Caesar.
- 59–49 Caesar in Gaul.
- 58–57 Exile of Cicero.
- 53 Violence between Clodius and Milo.
Death of Crassus at the battle of Carrhae.
- 52 Death of Clodius.
Burning of the senate house.
Sole consulship of Pompey.
- 49 Caesar crosses the Rubicon, sparking a resumption of civil war.
- 48 Caesar defeats Pompey at the battle of Pharsalus.
Caesar appointed dictator.
Death of Pompey.
- 47 Caesar in Egypt. Liaison with Cleopatra VII.
- 46 Victory at Utica in North Africa.
- 45 Caesar defeats Pompey’s sons at Munda in Spain.
Caesar returns to Italy.
- 44 Caesar assassinated (March 15).